Confirmed Plenary Speakers Addressing Grand Challenges
PROBING THE LIFE IN BUBBLES - NANOPLASMONIC QUANTIFICATION OF PATHOGEN-DERIVED EXTRACELLULAR VESICLES IN BLOOD
Tony Y. Hu
Tulane University, USA
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are small membrane-bound vesicles secreted by all cells, circulate at high levels, and convey nucleic acids, peptide/proteins, lipids. EVs secreted by microbial pathogens or infected or malignant cells represent an excellent source of biomarkers, but technical challenges have prevented development of EV-based assays. With the advanced technologies, we have identified and validated new biomarkers for rapid pathogen differentiation (e.g. SARS-CoV-2 and mycobacterial), early disease diagnosis (including cancer), and/or real-time evaluation of disease response. Our multidisciplinary expertise enables us to employ the characteristic properties of engineered nanodevices to improve the capture and detection of circulating biomarkers.
MANUFACTURING NEXT-GENERATION MICROELECTRONICS
Carl E. McCants
At the 2021 DARPA Electronics Resurgence Initiative (ERI) Summit and MTO Symposium, plans for the next iteration, named ERI 2.0, were discussed. One of the areas DARPA is planning to pursue is manufacturing complex 3D microsystems. The R&D needed for advanced microelectronics manufacturing would include the design, assembly, testing, and digital emulation of 3DHI microsystems, with an emphasis on: a) Multi-chip, multi-technology assembly and packaging; b) Tools for design, simulation, and test; c) Security; d) 3DHI (3-dimensional heterogeneous integration) interconnects; and e) Thermal management and power delivery. This presentation will focus on some of the challenges related to manufacturing complex 3D microsystems, including the need to develop new methods for test and verification to evaluate the reliability of these microelectronic systems.
MICROSENSOR MEASUREMENT OF EVOKED COMPOUND ACTION POTENTIALS IMPROVES SPINAL CORD STIMULATION CLINICAL EFFECTIVENESS AND LONG TERM EFFICACY
University of California, San Francisco, USA
SENSORS THAT MAKE COMMUNITY SENSE
University of Tennessee, Chattanooga, USA
Confirmed Microsystems Invited Speakers Addressing Grand Challenges
The twenty-first century is an urban living century. It is predicted that by 2050 about 64% of the developing world and 86% of the developed world will be urbanized. Urbanization creates significant pressure on vital city systems. Smart City research focuses on addressing these challenges by applying big data analytics to existing data sources and to data collected from sensors deployed in cities. Data enables local government and researchers to have a holistic view of their environment, define their goals, identify mitigation mechanisms, deploy the solutions, and measure the impacts over time. Interventions and refinements may be necessary as these impacts are being evaluated. Big data analytics can be utilized in any aspect of city life to improve the social, economic, and environmental well-being of urban residents.
DIAMOND QUANTUM SENSORS
University of New Mexico, USA
Color centers in wide-bandgap semiconductors have emerged as a leading platform in the field of quantum sensing, broadly defined as the use of qubits to measure environmental parameters. In my lab at the University of New Mexico, we are using Nitrogen-Vacancy (NV) spin qubits in diamond to image magnetic phenomena in condensed-matter and biological systems over a broad range of length scales.
At the nanometer scale, we build diamond magnetic microscopes to image, for example, the paramagnetic crystals produced by malaria parasites. At the micrometer scale, we embed diamond quantum sensors inside microfluidic chips to perform nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy at the scale of single cells. At the millimeter scale, we use magnetic flux concentrators to detect femtotesla-level magnetic fields, with potential applications in medical imaging and navigation.
Recently, there has been interest in using sensitive diamond quantum sensors to search for new particles such as 'axions'--hypothetical particles which could explain the mysterious dark matter which comprises the majority of mass in the universe. This involves probing for several hypothetical interactions between NV electron spins and moving masses. To maximize sensitivity, we are developing lateral MEMS oscillators that provide continuously-driven sinusoidal motion with high peak displacement (~1 micrometer) at a relatively high frequency (~1 MHz).
I will provide an overview of the field, discuss recent results and ongoing challenges, and outline future directions.
ADDRESSING THE GRAND CHALLENGES OF CLIMATE CHANGE
Bright Ice Initiative, Inc., SmallTech Consulting, LLC, and Stanford University, USA
Climate change is upon us, and its impacts have cost the world over one trillion dollars over the past decade. The future looks even grimmer in this regard - rising sea levels, droughts, wildfires, melting ice, and tragic losses of life, wildlife, food, clean water, and infrastructure are already being seen worldwide, and are predicted to become far worse if nothing is done - and soon.
This talk will highlight the need for engineers, inventors, scientists, policy makers, regulators, funders and caring citizens to come to the forefront now to address the largest challenge humanity has ever faced - to restore our climate to ensure a safer and more stable world for ourselves, our children, and future generations.
The worst thing we could possibly do is give up. The grand challenge for us all is to implement known technologies that will improve the climate situation, and to come up with new ideas and new ways to address these urgent problems in a responsible, safe, practical, expeditious and cost-effective way. Everywhere people are banding together to make a difference.
Our own work at Ice911 Research uses remote sensing technologies to monitor test sites treated with reflective materials to slow the ice melt. These monitoring technologies need to measure efficacy, safety and physical parameters of the testing. Small-scale field tests are used to quantify how effectively this approach can slow the melt and the data is used as inputs to expert climate modeling to indicate how and where it would be best to make internationally agreed-upon, sponsored, funded and permitted deployments to start rebuilding ice in the Arctic in order to stabilize the climate, to give the world much-needed time to complete the needed transitions to sustainable energy and fuels.
MEMS sensing and wireless communications are essential to this work. Some climate experts, such as Dr. Jon Koomey, believe that MEMS technology is one of the most important areas that can make a large difference soon in helping to address climate challenges.
This is humanity's time to collaborate and to take on this grandest challenge. Every degree matters. Every degree is worth fighting for.
BIOLOGY-INSPIRED INTELLIGENCE IN THE DESIGN, CONTROL, AND POWER SYSTEMS OF INSECT-SIZED FLYING ROBOTS
Sawyer B. Fuller
University of Washington, USA
A technology grand challenge for micro-systems that weigh far below a gram is giving them mobility and autonomy. We posit that creating intelligent, self-contained system so will require a confluence of biological inspiration, a formalized co-design process for all of their elements ranging from controllers to power sources to sensors, and a fabrication process that allows for rapid design iteration.
PERSONALIZED MEDICINE FOR OFTEN OVERLOOKED POPULATIONS BY USING TEXTILE-BASED SENSORS
Alicia Chong Rodriguez
Bloomer Tech, USA
Understanding the performance of medical devices in all individuals triggered the FDA to launch the CRDH Health of Women Program earlier this year. There is a danger that machine learning and AI could perpetuate the problem of suboptimal performance in women in healthcare as it has in other industries. Acquiring medical-grade data using sensors designed around often overlooked populations is an opportunity to truly tailor medicine. This presentation will dive deeper into these problems, including biases of some medical devices and sex differences in certain diseases and conditions like cardiovascular disease and stroke. It will share how Bloomer Tech is tackling them, including the founders' personal stories, the data gap in women's health and why using sensor technology for personalized healthcare can accelerate progress in women's health.
Bloomer Tech is generating novel digital biomarkers and transforming women's health. It has scaled the production of its category-changing, textile-sensor technology to collect large amounts of health data from women, an asset that is in high demand and hard to access. The bra form factor and patented sensors enable accurate measurement and ease of use, having great potential for use in the primary care setting, decentralized clinical trials, or as a direct consumer device. Bloomer Tech's product has already attracted pharmaceutical and medical device companies and hospitals.
Alicia Chong Rodriguez is an engineer and computer scientist, Founder and CEO at Bloomer Tech, a company using patented augmented garments to generate novel digital biomarkers.